Posted by eGZact on January 21, 2008
Kill tally: 200,000-350,000 Chinese killed during the ‘Rape of Nanking’.
Background: The final collapse of the Chinese Imperial Government at the start of the 20th Century brings in a 30-year period of instability to China during which the nationalist Guomindang (Kuomintang or KMT – the National People’s Party, or Nationalist Party), headed by Chiang Kai-shek, battle the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), headed by Mao Tse-Tung, for ultimate control.
Across the East China Sea, Japan becomes progressively more nationalistic and militaristic, seeing in China an opportunity to expand on territory occupied in Manchuria (now Dongbei Pingyuan, north of Korea) and Shandong Province (across the Yellow Sea from Korea) after the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and during the First World War.
The Japanese military is seeped in the tradition of unquestioning loyalty to the emperor. Commands from superior officers are regarded as equivalent to commands from the emperor himself. Military leaders have direct access to the emperor and the authority to transmit his pronouncements directly to the troops. The emperor is considered divine and the seat of ultimate power.
Mini biography: Born on 2 October 1887 in Kyoto, Japan. He is a member of the Japanese imperial family and uncle-in-law to Emperor Hirohito.
1908 – He graduates from the Japanese military academy and is commissioned into the army as a sub-lieutenant.
1920-23 – He travels to France to further his military studies.
1927-29 – Japanese troops are sent to China to obstruct attempts by the Guomindang to unify the country. In June 1928 officers in the Guandong Army, the Japanese Army unit stationed in Manchuria, begin an unauthorised campaign to secure Japanese interests and precipitate a war with China. Both the Japanese high command and the Chinese refuse to mobilise. Read the rest of this entry »
Posted in Dictators and Killers | Tagged: Asaka, dictators, Great Nanking Massacre, killers, Nanking Datusha, Prince Yasuhiko, Rape of Nanking | Leave a Comment »
Posted by eGZact on December 21, 2007
Kill tally: No reliable figures but the Philippines democracy and economy ruined and possibly thousands killed.
Background: Spain colonises the Philippine archipelago during the 16th Century, naming the islands after King Philip II and establishing Manila (on the northern island of Luzon) as the capital in 1571. The indigenous population is converted to Roman Catholicism, although Muslim Filipinos in the south and upland tribes in the north resist any challenge to their traditional religious beliefs.
When the United States takes control of the archipelago following the 1898 Spanish-American War independence activists wage a guerrilla war against the new colonialists. The rebels are brought under control and political reforms introduced as the country prepares for independence.
The self-governing Commonwealth of the Philippines is established in 1935. Full independence is scheduled for introduction after a further 10 years, but the timetable is interrupted by the Japanese occupation of the country during the Second World War. Independence is finally achieved on 4 July 1946, though as the date would imply, the US retains significant influence.
Mini biography: Born on 11 September 1917 in Sarrat in the llocos Norte Province at the northwestern tip of Luzon. Both his parents are teachers. After completing his schooling, Marcos enrols to study law at the University of the Philippines.
1939 – In April Marcos is arrested in connection with the 1933 murder of a political rival of his father and has to complete his law degree while in custody. He stands trial in September and is and found guilty. Read the rest of this entry »
Posted in Dictators and Killers | Tagged: dictators, Ferdinand Marcos, killers | Leave a Comment »
Posted by eGZact on October 29, 2007
Full name Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina. AKA ‘El Jefe’ (the chief), AKA ‘El Chivo’ (the goat), AKA ‘Chapita’ (bottle top).
Country: Dominican Republic.
Kill tally: Around 20,000 Haitians killed in 1937. (Estimates of the number of Haitians killed vary from several hundred to 30,000.) An unknown number of Dominican dissidents and opposition figures killed during his 31-year reign.
Background: The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is established in February 1844. The Republic occupies the eastern two-thirds of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. Haiti occupies the western third.
Despite initial optimism a tradition of dictatorial “strong-man” (or “caudillo”) rule comes to be entrenched in the Republic, reaching its zenith 100 years later during the rule of Rafael Trujillo.
At the same time, longstanding tensions between the Dominican Republic and Haiti will assume a growing racial component as the fairer-skinned Dominicans come to feel threatened by and at the same time superior to their darker-skinned neighbours.
At the start of the 20th Century the United States begins to take a greater role in Dominican affairs, culminating in a US occupation that begins in May 1916 and continues to July 1924, when Horacio Vásquez Lajara is inaugurated as president and control of the country returns to the Dominican parliament. Read the rest of this entry »
Posted in Dictators and Killers | Tagged: Chapita, dictators, El Chivo, El Jefe, killers, Rafael Trujillo | Leave a Comment »
Posted by eGZact on October 29, 2007
AKA ‘El Caudillo’ (The Leader).
Kill tally: Tens to hundreds of thousands. One source says 500,000 killed in the Spanish Civil War, another claims two million executed alone. More sober estimates for executions put the figure at 35,000 killed either summarily or after a hasty court martial. According to military historian Antony Beevor, the figure for non-combatants and surrendered troops killed by Franco’s Nationalists during the war “must exceed 100,000 and may be closer to 200,000.”
Background: Spain becomes a republic in 14 April 1931 when King so XIII abdicates and goes into exile. However, the country is unable to maintain any political stability. A provisional administration is replaced first by a republican left government in October 1931 then a conservative government in November 1933 and finally by the Popular Front, a coalition of socialists and left republicans, in February 1936. Spanish conservatives become concerned that the Popular Front will turn the country into a communist state. The right-wing National Bloc openly appeals to the military to save Spain. The military acts in July 1936, sparking the Spanish Civil War.
Mini biography: Born on 4 December 1892 in El Ferrol in Galicia, northwestern Spain. His full name is Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde. Franco’s father is a paymaster in the Spanish naval administrative corps. His mother is a pious and conservative upper middle-class Roman Catholic.
1907 – At the age of 14 Franco enters the Infantry Academy at Toledo, graduating three years later and receiving his first commission as second lieutenant. Read the rest of this entry »
Posted in Dictators and Killers | Tagged: dictators, El Caudillo, Francisco Franco, killers, Spanish Civil War, The Leader | Leave a Comment »
Posted by eGZact on October 28, 2007
Kill tally: Up to 200,000.
Background: The southern Slavic states of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia begin to merge as a single nation following the First World War. But the legacy of a 400-year occupation by the Islamic Ottoman Empire and traditional tension between Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians frustrate attempts for unity. Following the Second World War, Yugoslav communists led by Marshal Josip Broz Tito take control of the government, declaring the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia on 29 November 1945.
The veneer of Yugoslav stability begins to crumble when Tito dies on 4 May 1980. The prosperous northern states of Croatia and Slovenia start to agitate for autonomy. Macedonia and the Muslim majorities in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Serbian province of Kosovo repeat the call. Serbia has political power under the federation and does not want change. The poorer southern state of Montenegro supports the centralised federation and backs Serbia.
Mini biography: Radovan Karadzic, Ratko Mladic.
Radovan Karadzic: Born on 19 June 1945 in Petnijca, a village near Savnik in the mountains of Montenegro. In 1960 he moves to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, where he studies medicine at the University of Sarajevo, graduating as a physician and psychiatrist. He also publishes poetry and books for children. In 1985 he is sentenced to three years imprisonment for embezzlement and fraud but never serves his time.
Ratko Mladic: Born on 12 March 1943 in the municipality of Kalinovik in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He pursues a military career in the Yugoslav People’s Army, rising to a command post. Read the rest of this entry »
Posted in Dictators and Killers | Tagged: Bosnia-Herzegovina, dictators, killers, Radovan Karadzic, Ratko Mladic | Leave a Comment »